Formulation of Japanese pitch accent

Case study

Phrase accent

Phrase accent is a concatenation of the accent of independent word and that of attached word.
Noun phrase accent is generally given by

  Nα+ attached wordβ→{N+ attached word} (α-number of attached moras) andβ.

The process of this rule can be simply described that

  /Nα+ attached wordβ.

Verb(or Adjective) phrase accent, while it's independent part is given by

  V(A)χconjugated formα,

is generally given by

  V(A)χconjugated formα+ attached wordβ→{V(A)χconjugated form+ attached word} (α-number of attached moras) andβ.

The process of these rules can be simply described that

  /V(A)χ[conjugation name]α+ attached wordβ.


(if α=0, (α-number of attached moras)=0.)

(α,β: 0 or minus number taht indicates the nuclear position. χ: type a or b.)

Word accent

Contents

Noun and other accent-fixed parts of speech

Attached word succeeding noun or similar word

1mora
2mora
3mora
4mora and over
Special

Verb

Dictionary form
Conjugated form
 Va
 Vb

Adjective

Dictionary form
Conjugated form
 Aa
 Ab

Attached word succeeding verb or adjective

Notes

Representation of compound and derivative

Noun and other accent-fixed parts of speech

Represented by / , N or F , form* , -numeral or 0* .     * omissible

Common noun

/N 0
/N-1
/N-2
/N-3
/N-4


Other noun and all other accent-fixed parts of speech

/F 0
/F-1
/F-2
/F-3
/F-4


 Attached word succeeding noun or similar word

Represented by + , form , -numeral or 0*.     * omissible

1mora

+○0 Except the followings. ○ represents 1mora.
+ダ-1
+ャ0
or -1
+ノc0
 Only in case succeeding 2 and over mora naun /N-1. c0 means that the last nucleus is cancelled and has no nucleus.
+ノ0
 In other cases.

2mora

+○○-2 Including + and except the followings.
+シカ-2~3 -2~3
means that the nucleus transfers to one-mora front.
+カラ0
  0 may be omitted hereafter.
+ホド
+ッテ
+ダケ0
or c0
+○ナ
+○ネ

3mora

+○○○-3 Including +○○, ○○+ and except the followings.
+ラシイ-2
or c-2
+ラシク-3
or c-3
+グライ-3
or c-3
+ゴトキ-3
or c-3
+ダロオ-2
+デショオ-2
+ダソオ-2
+カラ○-2
 The nucleus is constantly located on regardless of the number of .
+ダケ○-2
or c-2 The nucleus is constantly located on regardless of the number of .

4mora and over  To be regarded as a sequense of above words.

Special

+ゴトc (means “together with”
+ゴトニc-3
+バカリノc-3
+ダラケc-3
+アタリc-3
+ドコロ○c-4 or -4
+ソオc-2 
but 0 only in case succeeding /F0.
+ソオダc-3 but -1 only in case succeeding /F0.
+ソオナc-3 but 0 only in case succeeding /F0.
+ソオデスc-4 but -2 only in case succeeding /F0.

 Verb

Represented by / , Va or Vb , dictionary form* or stem part*[conjugation name] , -numeral or 0* .     * omissible

Dictionary form

/Va-2
/Va-~3
/Va-~1
/Vb
/V
(irrespective of accent type)

Conjugated form

/Va[テ]-3 *1
/Va[タ]-3 *1
/Va[テル]-4 *1
/Va[タラ]-4 *1
/Va[タリ]-4 *1
/Va[テタ]-4 *1
/Va[テ○]-4 *1
/Va[チャ]-3 *1
/Va[
discontinuance]-2 *1
+オ/V[
ren'yo]0+ニナル-2,スル0,クダサイ-2  オ is a prefix.
/V[マス]-2
/V[マシタ]-3
/V[マセン]-2
/V[マショオ]-2
/Va[ナガラ]-3
or 0
/V[ツツ]-2
/V[ナサイ]-2
/V[ナ]-1
 (light imperative
/Va[ソオ]-2
 (guess
/Va[ソオダ]-3
 (guess
/Va[ソオデス]-4
 (guess
/Va[ソオナ]-3
 (guess
/Va[ソオニ]-3
 (guess
/Va[ワ]-3/シナイ *1
/Va[モ]-3/シナイ *1
/Va[ニ]-3/イク *1
/Va[タイ]-2
/V[タイ○]-3
/Va[タク]-2
/V[タクテ]-3
/V[タクテ○]-4
/V[タカッタ]-4
/V[タケレバ]-4
/V[タガル]-2
/Va[ナイ]-3 *2
/Va[ナイデ]-4 *2
/Va[ナイ○]-4 *2
/Va[ヌ]-2
/Va[ズ]-2
/Va[ズニ]-3
/Va[ナカッタ]-5
/Va[ナケレバ]-5
/Va[ナクテ]-4
/Va[ナクテ○]-5
/Va[ネバ]-3
/Va[ナキャ]-3
/Va[セル]-2
/Va[サセル]-2
/Va[レル]-2
/Va[ラレル]-2
/V[
intention]-2
/Va[バ]-3 *1
/Va[レバ]-3 *1
/Va[ド]-3 *1
/Va[レド]-3 *1
/Va[
possible]-2
/V[マイ]-2
/Va[
imperative]-2 *1

ruleIf the nuclear position number is larger than the number of moras of the word, the nucleus stops before the /.  ex.あれ見て /Fアレ0/Vaミ[テ]-3~2
*1 When the dictionary form is /Va-~3, the nucleus moves to one-mora front.  ex.帰って /Vaカエッ[テ]-3~4
*2 When the nucleus is to be on the euphonic change of , the nucleus moves to one-mora front.  ex.分んない /Vaワカン[ナイ]-3~4

/Vb[テ]
/Vb[タ]
/Vb[テル]
/Vb[タラ]-2
/Vb[タリ]-2
/Vb[テタ]-2
/Vb[テ○]-2
/Vb[チャ]-1
/Vb[
discontinuance]
+オ/V[
ren'yo]0+ニナル-2,スル0,クダサイ-2  オ is a prefix.
/V[マス]-2
/V[マシタ]-3
/V[マセン]-2
/V[マショオ]-2
/Vb[ナガラ]0
or -3
/V[ツツ]-2
/V[ナサイ]-2
/V[ナ]-1 
light imperative
/Vb[ソオ] 
guess
/Vb[ソオダ]-1 
guess
/Vb[ソオデス]-2 
guess
/Vb[ソオナ] 
guess
/Vb[ソオニ] 
guess
/Vb[ワ]-2/シナイ
/Vb[モ]-2/シナイ
/Vb[ニ]/イク
/Vb[タイ]
/V[タイ○]-3
/Vb[タク]
/V[タクテ]-3
/V[タクテ○]-4
/V[タカッタ]-4
/V[タケレバ]-4
/V[タガル]-2
/Vb[ナイ]
/Vb[ナイデ]-3
/Vb[ナイ○]-3
/Vb[ヌ]
/Vb[ズ]
/Vb[ズニ]
/Vb[ナカッタ]-4
/Vb[ナケレバ]-4
/Vb[ナクテ]-3
/Vb[ナクテ○]-4
/Vb[ネバ]-2
/Vb[ナキャ]-2
/Vb[セル]
/Vb[サセル]
/Vb[レル]
/Vb[ラレル]
/V[
intention]-2
/Vb[
intention]-2+ト or +トc
/Vb[バ]-2
/Vb[レバ]-2
/Vb[ド]-2
/Vb[レド]-2
/Vb[
possible]
/V[マイ]-2
/Vb[
imperative]-1

 Adjective

Represented by / , Aa or Ab , dictionary form* or stem part*[conjugation name] , -numeral or 0* .     * omissible

Dictionary form

/Aa-2
/Ab
/A
(irrespective of accent type)

Conjugated form

/Aa[ク]-3
/Aa[クテ]-4
/Aa[カッタ]-5
/Aa[ケレバ]-5
/Aa[ソオ]-2 
guess
/Aa[ソオダ]-3 
guess
/Aa[ソオナ]-3 
guess
/A[カロオ]-2

ruleIf the nuclear position number is larger than the number of moras of the word, the nucleus stops before the /.  ex.映画良かった /Nエーガ0/Aaヨ[カッタ]-5~4

/Ab[ク]
/Ab[クテ]-3
/Ab[カッタ]-4
/Ab[ケレバ]-4
/Ab[ソオ] 
guess
/Ab[ソオダ]-1 
guess
/Ab[ソオナ] 
guess
/A[
カロオ]-2

 Attached word succeeding verb or adjective

Represented by + , form , -numeral or 0*.     * omissible

+ネ
+ナ 
guess, admiration
+マデ-2
+マデ○-3
+ソオ-2 
hearsay
+ソオ○-3 
hearsay
+ヨオ-2
+ヨオ○-3
+トキ-2
+べキ-2
or c-2
+マイc-2
+シカ-2~3
+ゴトキ-3
+ゴトシ-3
+ラシク-3
or c-3
+グライ-3
or c-3
+グライ○-4
or c-4
+ドコロ-3
or c-3
+ドコロ○-4
or c-4
+ナ-2
 (prohibition
+カ-2 *3
+カ○-3 *3
+ガ-2 *3
+サ-2 *3
+シ-2 *3
+ャ-2
+ノ-2 *3
+ノ○-3 *3
+ン-2 *3
+ン○-3 *3
+カラ-3 *3
+カラ○-4 *3
+ナラ-3 *3
+ニワ-3 *3
+ナド-3 *3
+デス-3 *3
+ッテ-3 *3
+ケレド-4 *3
+カシラ-4 *3
+ダロオ-4 *3
+デショオ-4 *3
+ヨ0
or -2 *3
+ゾ0
or -2 *3
+ト0
or -2 *3
+ダケ0
or c0
+ダケ○-2
or c-2
+ラシイ-2
or c-2

ruleWhen the nuclear position number is larger than the number of moras of the word, the nucleus exceeds the +.  ex.するから /Vbスル0+カラ-3
*3 When the nucleus is to be on the of /Vb[ナイ], /Vb[タイ], the end of /Ab, the nucleus moves to one-mora front.  ex.知らないから /Vbシラ[ナイ]0+カラ-3~4


Notes

/ Independent word
VaVerb of undulant type
VbVerb of flat type
AaAdjictive of undulant type
AbAdjictive of flat type
[]Name of conjugation
N Common noun
F Other accent-fixed words(other noun, stem of adjectival noun, adverb, attribute, conjunction, interjection, numeral, numeral+counter etc.
+ Attached word(particle, sufix, component of complex word, etc.)
- Nuclear position by retrogressive notation  0:no nucleus (0 omissible
~ Transfer or change of the nuclear position *4 (number followed by ~ omissible
c Cancellation of the last nucleus

*4 Nucleus transfers to one-mora front or back when supposed to locate on , , the second half of prolonged sound, the second half of vowel hiatus, voiceless mora. Shortage of mora or other kinds of reasons cause nuclear position change.


Representation of compound and derivative

ex.朝日新聞社行きの
Usually:/アサヒシンブンシャ-3+イキc+ノ

For explanation of word composition and nuclear position change process, using { } and ~
{{{/アサヒ-3~0/シンブン0~-4}+シャc-2~3}+イキc}+ノ or
{{/アサヒ-3~0{/シンブン0+シャc-2~3}}+イキc}+ノ


Introduction to Japanese pitch accent  Case study  Data

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© N.Komori 2012